Classically, Ayurvedic Medicine was conceptualized and practiced as eight major clinical subspecialties of medicine in addition to numerous adjunctive specialties. The eight major subspecialties continue to be taught today and they include:
Internal Medicine (Kayachikitsa)
General Surgery (Shalya Tantra)
Pediatrics and Obstetric/Gynecology (Kaumarabhrtya)
Toxicology (Agada Tantra)
Nutrition, Detoxification and Rejuvenation (Rasayana Tantra)
Fertility and Virility (Vajikarana)
For every disease, there is information about: definition, etiology, prodrome, clinical symptoms, pathophysiology, prognosis, principles of treatment, medicines, diet, lifestyle recommendations, and even etymology. This approach is strikingly similar to that of modern medicine and even more comprehensive.
Over the last century, Ayurvedic Medicine has experienced a rebirth and has continued to evolve its holistic approach to health in accordance with modern needs and scientific advances of the day. Today, modern Ayurveda also includes:
Kulam Svastyam Kutumbakam: Principles of Preventative Healthcare For the Entire Family
Sangakara Chikitsa: Treatment of Addictions. Includes strategies for defeating addictions to alcohol, tobacco, sexual behavior, and food.
Panchakarma Chikitsa: Purification and Rejuvenation Treatments. Prescribed with respect to one's individual nature, work, social circumstance, age, and season.
Sthaulya Chikitsa: This discipline covers practical and effective approaches to maintain a healthy weight through constitutionally-determined diet, exercise, herbs, spices, teas, breathing, and psychological aids.
Vatavyadhi Chikitsa: Specific treatment plans for the diseases of Vata origin which affect the musculoskeletal system and nervous system (joints, bones, muscles, nerves) Examples include but are not limited to: osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, osteopenia, multiple sclerosis, spondylosis, sciatica, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Svabhaavoparamavaada: Promotion of self-healing and resistance to disease (i.e. immunity) as per your age, sex, occupation, nature, daily routine, medical history, mental status, season, and region.
Vajikarana: Specific remedies for Male infertility and impotence as well as Female infertility.
Saundarya Sadhana: Beauty and cosmetic treatments for men and women, including skin, hair, eyes, posture, body odor, and general appearance